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Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome. An Information-Processing by Nelson Butters

By Nelson Butters

• Edit date: 1980 • writer: educational Press. Inc • ISBN: 0-12-148380-0 • writer: Nelson Butters/Laird S. Cermak • Preface/Forward: via the authors • No. Pages: 188

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1). In other words, information that achieved long-term memory (LTM) status apparently left enough of a trace so that relearning progressed more rapidly than original learning. This allowed the patients the freedom to pick up more of the P-A's on subsequent days and, interestingly enough, those new items also were relearned quickly the succeeding day. Complete free recall was never possible, but enough of the P-A was retained to accelerate the relearning process. The Cermak et al. (1971) results were consistent with those reported previously by Warrington and Weiskrantz.

This led them to their conclusion that decay was the principle cause of forgetting in STM. The error of their assumption was quickly pointed out by Keppel 22 2. 2 0 3 6 9 12 Recall interval (sec) 15 18. 83 sec as a function of the recall interval. and Underwood (1962), who showed that the Petersons had overlooked an important source of "interference" in their design, namely, the PI that accrued from items presented on preceding trials. Keppel and Underwood argued that because the Petersons had given their subjects several practice trials before initiating their testing procedure, a good deal of PI had been generated prior to the point at which they began to collect data.

In any case, retention is measured on the basis of the number of responses recognized correctly, minus a correction for guessing based on the number of alternatives provided. RELEARNING The relearning method, frequently called the savings method, is based on the assumption that if a patient can relearn material at a rate faster than he had originally learned it, then some material must have been retained from the original learning session. The amount that is retained, or saved, is expressed by the formula: Savings Score = lOOx Original trials — Relearning trials Original trials As can be seen, when no relearning trials are necessary, the savings score is 100%.

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