By Alberto Valdés
Within the pre-reform interval, agriculture was once seriously backed in such a lot valuable and jap eu international locations (CEECs). round 1989, such a lot CEECs started to open up their markets, liberalize costs, and decrease subsidies. whilst, the extent of help supplied to agriculture declined vastly. seeing that 1996, even though, this development has been reversed in so much CEECs. to investigate the rural zone in CEECs, this record starts with a synthesis of the multi-country research. It provides estimates of assorted agricultural help signs and an research of the impression of alternate and cost coverage interventions. It additionally asks to what volume these changes supplied for a extra across the world aggressive agricultural quarter. the second one a part of the e-book offers person state reviews, together with Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine. Germany and Turkey are incorporated for comparability. This file might be of curiosity to agricultural policymakers and different govt officers within the nations concerned, european officers, international financial institution and FAO employees, and others attracted to agricultural reform in Europe and crucial Asia.
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Additional info for Agricultural support policies in transition economies, Volumes 23-470
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In most transition countries, very little is known about the cost structure of private-sector small- and medium-sized farms. Moreover, the data on machinery use and estimates of the opportunity cost of machinery is not available for many activities in some of the selected countries. 4 The calculation of effective rates of assistance requires data on government expenditures and credit subsidies. In some countries (such as Turkey and Ukraine) credit subsidies have become the main vehicle of public transfers to producers.
These subsidies, including subsidies for capital investment, land improvements, direct payments and others, do not directly affect prices received or paid for by farmers. In this investigation three different indicators have been used to measure agricultural support in specific production activities in various studies in other regions. These include the nominal rate of protection (NRP), the effective rate of protection (ERP), and the effective rate of assistance (ERA). These indicators capture the direct affect of agricultural price policies on the agricultural sector itself, but do not take into account their effects on other sectors (such as on urban wages), or the repercussions of non-agricultural policies (such as high industrial protection) on the cost structure of agriculture.